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GCN Circular 36242

LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA S240422ed: AstroSat CZTI non-detection and upper limits
2024-04-23T03:40:26Z (3 months ago)
Gaurav Waratkar at IIT Bombay <>
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G. Waratkar (IITB), V. Bhalerao (IITB), J. Joshi (IUCAA), M. Tembhurnikar (IUCAA), D. Bhattacharya (Ashoka University/IUCAA), A. R. Rao (TIFR), S. Vadawale (PRL) report on behalf of the AstroSat CZTI collaboration:

We have carried out a search for X-ray candidates in AstroSat-CZTI data in a 100 sec window around the trigger time of the event S240422ed (UTC 2024-04-22 21:35:13, GraceDB event). We use the Bilby.offline0.multiorder.fits map ( for our analysis. CZTI is a coded aperture mask instrument that has considerable effective area for about 29% of the entire sky, but is also sensitive to brighter transients from the entire sky. At the time of the merger, AstroSat's nominal pointing is RA,DEC = 07:31:19.6, 41:26:42.0 (112.8317,41.4450), which is ~68 deg away from the maximum probability location. At the time of the merger event, the Earth-satellite-transient angle corresponding to maximum probability location is ~123 deg and hence is not occulted by Earth in satellite's frame. In a time interval of 100 sec around the event, the region of the localisation map which is not occulted by Earth in the satellite's frame has a total probability of 1.0 (100%).

CZTI data were de-trended to remove orbit-wise background variation. We then searched data from the four independent, identical quadrants to look for coincident spikes in the count rates. Searches were undertaken by binning the data in 0.1s, 1s, and 10s respectively. Statistical fluctuations in background count rates were estimated by using data from 5 preceding orbits. We selected confidence levels such that the probability of a false trigger in a 100 sec window is 10^-4 (refer arxiv:​​2402.07564 for more details). 

We do not find any evidence for any hard X-ray transient in this window, in the CZTI energy range of 20-200 keV.

We use a detailed mass model of the satellite to calculate the direction-dependent instrument response for points in the visible sky. We then assume the source is modelled as a power law with photon index alpha = -1, and convert our count rate upper limits to direction-dependent flux limits. We obtain the following upper limits for source flux in the 20-200 keV band by taking a probability weighted mean over the visible sky:

0.1 s: flux limit= 1.16e-06 ergs/cm^2/s; fluence limit = 1.16e-07 ergs/cm^2
1.0 s: flux limit= 2.88e-07 ergs/cm^2/s; fluence limit = 2.88e-07 ergs/cm^2
10.0 s: flux limit= 9.06e-08 ergs/cm^2/s; fluence limit = 9.06e-07 ergs/cm^2

We note that these limits mean that we are not sensitive to a GW170817-like event at the luminosity distance of 188 Mpc. 

CZTI is built by a TIFR-led consortium of institutes across India, including VSSC, URSC, IUCAA, SAC, and PRL. The Indian Space Research Organisation funded, managed, and facilitated the project.

CZTI GRB detections are reported regularly on the payload site at:

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